Seawater injection: Challenges, mitigation, geographic distribution and best practices ///

The following is a review of challenges associated with seawater injection and their respective mitigation strategies, as well as the geographic distribution of seawater injection projects. The discussed challenges include plugging, due to suspended solids and bacteria; deterioration in well injectivity; the corrosive effect of injection water on the injection system; scaling effects of seawater injection when used in conjunction with produced water re-injection; and reservoir souring. The mitigation strategies discussed include types of filtration systems, in-situ chlorination, chemical addition, de-aeration systems, and sulphate removal systems. Finally, suggested industry best practices for seawater injection systems are presented in this article.

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