Effective water management requires both surface and subsurface solutions ///
According to a produced water study conducted by Douglas-Westwood and OTM Consulting Research in 2010, daily water production volumes for the oil and gas industry significantly exceed that of oil volumes, to the extent that 211 MMbwpd are produced, compared to around 85 MMbopd. While few companies track life cycle water management costs, Baker Hughes suggests $11 billion as the best annual cost estimate for surface water treatment and disposal in the U.S. Baker Hughes has developed services for surface water management as well as to minimize produced water through downhole solutions, such as gel injections and relative permeability modifiers.
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