Treatment options for reuse of frac flowback and produced water from shale ///
Horizontal drilling followed by multi-stage fracturing is the most prevalent mode of gas extraction from shale. Hydraulic fracturing of a well encompasses, on the average, 12 frac stages, with each stage using about 10,000–12,000 bbl of water. According to a November 2010 market study by Cap Resources, water usage in the main US shale plays is projected to increase from about 450 million bbl in 2010 to about 675 million bbl by the end of 2015.
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