France, Germany: Hardsurfacing nonmagnetic steel for oil drilling tools ///
Since it was introduced in 1926 by the Stoody brothers, hardsurfacing- – using the oxyacetylene welding process to apply a low-carbon steel tube filled with tungsten carbide – has proven efficient. But the process is limited in that it must be applied at a high temperature, and this oxidizes the deposit and the area surrounding the deposit.
The use of an electric arc to make the deposits is both damaging to the substrate (by excessive penetration into the base material) and to the carbide particles as they are placed in solution with the heat of the arc.
The introduction of a welding rope made from a nickel, chromium, boron, silicon alloy to form the matrix, and tungsten carbide to provide the wear element, has significantly improved hardsurfacing applications, as well as wear life. The introduction of spherical cast carbide into the product has further improved its application and life. This product is now in wide use in stabilizers and drill bits.
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