Would you like to start a free subscription?
Remember me | Forgot password
For full content view: Log in Now!
As California entered a period of severe drought in 2008, the challenges of using thermal methods to extract heavy oil became compounded by the difficulty of securing freshwater sources from which to generate the high-quality steam that these methods require. In an effort to manage the crisis, then-Gov. Arnold Schwarzenegger proclaimed a state of emergency and enacted widespread water-conservation measures. The drought, which officially lasted until March 2011, impacted heavy oil fields in the state that rely on affordable fresh water to feed boilers in thermal techniques such as steamflooding and cyclic steam stimulation (CSS). Essentially, these thermal techniques involve the injection of steam into wells to heat the viscous oil to flowing temperatures. As the drought intensified in California, the prospect of feeding boilers with oilfield produced water instead was studied as an alternative.
This area of the site is restricted.
In order to gain access, please either Log
In, or subscribe to World Oil.
Two options are available to you for creating an account.
1. Get a Free Trial Subscription to World Oil Magazine and gain immediate access to select content on World Oil Online.
Start a Free Trial Subscription and gain immediate access to the complete current issue of World Oil Magazine. Plus, you’ll receive 3 upcoming issues of World Oil Magazine in print or digital format.* You also receive access to the Energy Events Calendar, Industry Statistics and WO Wire’s news and industry coverage.
2. Purchase a subscription to World Oil magazine and gain immediate
and complete access to World Oil Online. As a Total Access subscriber
you will have access to all areas of the site available to registered users and
free subscribers as well as having access to such premium content areas as:
Physical copies of this content may be available for purchase. Visit the Reprints & Back Issues section.
If you are already a paid subscriber and do not have access, please email CustomerService@worldoil.com.
World Oil's specialized upstream Engineering Data Tables featuring the Drill Bit Classifier, Tubing Tables and more. Get Total Access today.
Kuala Lumpur - March 25-28
The Woodlands, TX - April 1-3
Houston, TX - April 6-9
All material subject to strictly enforced copyright laws.
© 2014 World Oil. © 2014 Gulf Publishing Company.