Would you like to start a free subscription?
Remember me | Forgot password
For full content view: Log in Now!
Water treatment and steam generation methods for heavy oil recovery processes have evolved rapidly. Traditionally, Once-Through Steam Generators (OTSGs), driven by natural gas, have been used to produce about 80% quality steam (80% vapor, 20% liquid) for injection into the well to fluidize the heavy oil, especially for cyclic steam operations. However, the more recent Steam-Assisted Gravity Drainage (SAGD) method requires 100% quality steam for injection. The use of OTSG for SAGD applications requires a series of vapor-liquid separators to produce the requisite steam quality. For both SAGD and non-SAGD applications, pre-treatment of the OTSG feed water has consisted of silica reduction in a hot or warm lime softener, filtration and hardness removal by Weak Acid Cation (WAC) ion exchange. In most cases, the OTSG blowdown is disposed by deep well injection.
As the use of SAGD increased, the traditional produced water treatment and steam generation methods were re-evaluated...
This area of the site is restricted.
In order to gain access, please either Log
In, or subscribe to World Oil.
Two options are available to you for creating an account.
1. Get a Free Trial Subscription to World Oil Magazine and gain immediate access to select content on World Oil Online.
Start a Free Trial Subscription and gain immediate access to the complete current issue of World Oil Magazine. Plus, you’ll receive 3 upcoming issues of World Oil Magazine in print or digital format.* You also receive access to the Energy Events Calendar, Industry Statistics and WO Wire’s news and industry coverage.
2. Purchase a subscription to World Oil magazine and gain immediate
and complete access to World Oil Online. As a Total Access subscriber
you will have access to all areas of the site available to registered users and
free subscribers as well as having access to such premium content areas as:
Physical copies of this content may be available for purchase. Visit the Reprints & Back Issues section.
If you are already a paid subscriber and do not have access, please email CustomerService@worldoil.com.
World Oil's specialized upstream Engineering Data Tables featuring the Drill Bit Classifier, Tubing Tables and more. Get Total Access today.
Houston, TX - November 4-5
The Woodlands, TX - November 17-17
Houston, TX - November 18-18
All material subject to strictly enforced copyright laws.
© 2014 World Oil. © 2014 Gulf Publishing Company.