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First-generation Anti-Agglomerate Low Dosage Hydrate Inhibitors (AA-LDHI) are known to perform at low watercuts of less than 40%, but caused poor produced oil/water quality. The second-generation new AA-LDHI chemistry is predominantly oil soluble and has been proven to prevent hydrate blockages in both wet-tree and dry-tree applications. Recently, a new chemistry was successful in field applications with watercuts up to 80%. A major benefit of this new chemistry is that produced water quality is improved in field applications. Its oil-soluble nature makes produced water less toxic and can reduce chemical costs for produced water polishing. This article explains the new chemistry and its benefits. Hydrate management is a critical aspect of deepwater oil and gas production facilities, since wells and flowlines are susceptible to hydrate blockage, if natural gas and water are present at elevated pressures and low temperatures. The temperature below which hydrates can form increases with increasing pressure and can be as high as 86°F.
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