Press Esc to close



For full content view: Log in Now!

  • What's new in exploration

    Perry A. Fischer, Engineering Editor

    Even earlier early life. A team of scientists at the University of Alabama at Birmingham (UAB), along with scientists at the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA), have discovered signs of life that existed on Earth 3.5 billion years ago. Details of the discovery were published in the March 7 edition of Nature magazine. "This pushes back by a billion years the prior definitive evidence of the earliest life on earth," said UAB astrophysicist Thomas J. Wdowiak, a member of the UAB team that made the discovery. Wdowiak, et al., have been working on instrumentation to assess the existence of life on other worlds in the solar system, including Mars and Jupiter’s moon Europa. Wdowiak is one of 21 scientists on the Athena Team for the Mars exploration Rover vehicles to be landed on the red planet in 2004.

This area of the site is restricted. In order to gain access, please either Log In, or subscribe to World Oil.

Two options are available to you for creating an account.

1. Get a Free Trial Subscription to World Oil Magazine and gain immediate access to select content on World Oil Online.

Start a Free Trial Subscription and gain immediate access to the complete current issue of World Oil Magazine. Plus, you’ll receive 3 upcoming issues of World Oil Magazine in print or digital format.* You also receive access to the Energy Events Calendar, Industry Statistics and WO Wire’s news and industry coverage.

Free Trial

2. Purchase a subscription to World Oil magazine and gain immediate and complete access to World Oil Online. As a Total Access subscriber you will have access to all areas of the site available to registered users and free subscribers as well as having access to such premium content areas as:

  • The Archives section containing over ten years of complete magazine archives,
  • The WO DataHub's engineering tables and directories,
  • The World Oil annual forecasts, including past predictions,
  • Select World Oil technical handbooks,
  • And much, much more!


Physical copies of this content may be available for purchase. Visit the Reprints & Back Issues section.

If you are already a paid subscriber and do not have access, please email



Engineering Data Tables

World Oil's specialized upstream Engineering Data Tables featuring the Drill Bit Classifier, Tubing Tables and more. Get Total Access today.


2013 Fracturing Technology

2013 Fracturing Technology