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Subsurface imaging using conventional seismic reflection techniques is challenging in areas where high-velocity rocks such as basalts are underlain by low-velocity rocks. The seismic image quality worsens in the presence of intercalated sediments within the basaltic rocks. This article presents an example showing possible complications expected in regions characterized by basalt flows. It further attempts to examine the applicability of using locally converted seismic waves to image the basalt layer as well as structures underneath them.
Imaging sub-basalt targets is a key problem for the hydrocarbon exploration industry. In large parts of the world, potential oil-bearing Tertiary sediments are considered to be intruded or covered by basaltic sills and lava flows.
Some of the vital issues associated with sub-basalt imaging are:
Complex setup caused by multiple basaltic flows and inter-fingering of sediments within the individual flows
Strong reflections due to high impedance contrasts at the top and bottom of the basalt flows ...
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