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Numerous approaches have been published that derive fluid indicators (often called Direct Hydrocarbon Indicators, or DHIs) from AVO (Amplitude Variations with Offset) equations. The main idea behind these methods is to use the linearized Zoeppritz equations to extract petrophysical parameters such as P-impedance, S-impedance, bulk modulus, shear modulus, Lamé’s parameters, and Poisson’s ratio, and infer the fluid content from cross-plots of these parameters. Russell et al.1 used standard poroelasticity theory, as explained by Biot2 and Gassmann,3 to generalize several of these methods that use a parameter dependent on the dry rock Vp/Vs ratio. Also, in this study, we use the Han4 lab measurements to compare the generalized fluid method with other fluid methods.
We found that the general linearized approximation for Zoeppritz’s equation falls into two categories. One category linearly involves Vp, Vs and , and the other one is nonlinearly related to Vp, Vs ...
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