Would you like to start a free subscription?
Remember me | Forgot password
For full content view: Log in Now!
Water accumulation near the wellbore or fracture face can decrease the relative permeability of oil and gas. This restriction to oil and gas flow, due to increased water saturation, is called water block. Sources for excess formation water could be water-based fluids used in drilling, completion, matrix or fracture treatments; cross-flow of water to dry gas zones; or water imbibition into tight zones. The excess water is trapped in the formation, due to high capillary pressure in porous rock and viscous fingering of gas through water. The presence of clays, migrating fines, reservoir heterogeneity and other forms of formation damage, such as wettability alterations, can increase the severity of trapping.
Laboratory studies by Kamath and Laroche, and Mahadevan and Sharma, have shown that removal of water from the formation occurs in two stages—an initial displacement stage where water is expelled from the core, followed by a long-term evaporation stage.
This area of the site is restricted.
In order to gain access, please either Log
In, or subscribe to World Oil.
Two options are available to you for creating an account.
1. Get a Free Trial Subscription to World Oil Magazine and gain immediate access to select content on World Oil Online.
Start a Free Trial Subscription and gain immediate access to the complete current issue of World Oil Magazine. Plus, you’ll receive 3 upcoming issues of World Oil Magazine in print or digital format.* You also receive access to the Energy Events Calendar, Industry Statistics and WO Wire’s news and industry coverage.
2. Purchase a subscription to World Oil magazine and gain immediate
and complete access to World Oil Online. As a Total Access subscriber
you will have access to all areas of the site available to registered users and
free subscribers as well as having access to such premium content areas as:
Physical copies of this content may be available for purchase. Visit the Reprints & Back Issues section.
If you are already a paid subscriber and do not have access, please email CustomerService@worldoil.com.
World Oil's specialized upstream Engineering Data Tables featuring the Drill Bit Classifier, Tubing Tables and more. Get Total Access today.
Houston, TX - November 4-5
All material subject to strictly enforced copyright laws.
© 2014 World Oil. © 2014 Gulf Publishing Company.