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Tubulars in oil and gas production facilities, offshore facilities, refineries and other industrial settings are subject to impulsive dynamic forces such as water hammer, seismic phenomena and other impact forces deriving from unpredictable handling or anomalous process conditions.
The solution traditionally employed to counterbalance these axial dynamic forces consists of an axially rigid damper or “axial stop,” the purpose of which is to rigidly stop movements. However, this method can discharge unbalanced dynamic forces directly onto the connected structures, and the limited stress transfer time and extreme rigidity of the support structure can amplify those forces.
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